Mining Related Terms

Assay - A measure of the valuable mineral content

Bastnasite - A mixed-lanthanide fluoro-carbonate mineral (Ln F CO3) that currently provides the bulk of the world's supply of the light REEs. Bastnasite and monazite are the two most common sources of cerium and other REEs. Bastnasite is found in carbonatites, igneous carbonate rocks that melt at unusually low temperatures

Bonding - a surety bond for completion of work under a contract

Calcination - a thermal treatment process in presence of air applied to ores and other solid materials to bring about a thermal decomposition, phase transition, or removal of a volatile fraction. (Also referred to as calcining)

Carbonatite - intrusive or extrusive igneous rocks defined by mineralogical composition consisting of greater than 50 percent carbonate minerals

Concentrate - A mineral processing product that generally describes the material that is produced after crushing and grinding ore, effecting significant separation of gangue (waste) minerals from the desired metal and/or metal  minerals, and discarding the waste minerals. The resulting "concentrate" of minerals typically has an order of magnitude higher content of minerals than the beginning ore material

Cut-off grade - When determining economically viable Mineral Reserves, the lowest grade of mineralized material that qualifies as ore – defined as that which can be mined and processed at a profit

Dike - a sub vertical sheet-like intrusion of magma or sediment

Feasibility study ("FS") - A comprehensive study of a mineral deposit in which all geological, engineering, legal, operating, economic, social, environmental and other relevant factors are considered in sufficient detail that it could reasonably serve as the basis for a final decision by a financial institution to finance the development of the deposit for mineral production

Fault – A surface or zone of rock fracture along which there has been displacement

Formation - A distinct layer of sedimentary rock of similar composition

Geochemical – The distribution and amounts of the chemical elements in minerals, ores, rocks, solids, water, and the atmosphere

Geophysical - The mechanical, electrical, gravitational and magnetic properties of the earth's crust

Geophysical surveys - A survey method used primarily in the mining industry as an exploration tool, applying the methods of physics and engineering to the earth's surface

Grade - Quantity of metal per unit weight of host rock

Host rock - The rock in which a mineral or an ore body may be contained

Life-of-mine - A term commonly used to refer to the likely term of a mining operation and normally determined by dividing the tons/tonnes of Mineral Reserve by the annual rate of mining and processing

Mineral - A naturally occurring inorganic crystalline material having a definite chemical composition

Mineralization - A natural accumulation or concentration in rocks or soil of one or more potentially economic minerals, also the process by which minerals are introduced or concentrated in a rock

Monazite - A rare earth phosphate mineral. Monazite minerals are typically accompanied by concentrations of uranium and thorium. This has historically limited the processing of monazite

National Instrument 43-101 ("NI 43-101") - Standards of disclosure for mineral projects prescribed by the Canadian Securities Administrators

Separation - A mass transfer process that converts a mixture of substances into two or more distinct product mixtures, at least one of which is enriched in one or more of the mixture's constituents.

Surface/Open pit - Surface mining in which the ore is extracted from a pit or quarry, the geometry of the pit may vary with the characteristics of the ore body

Ore - Mineral bearing rock that can be mined and treated profitably under current or immediately foreseeable economic conditions

Ore body - A mostly solid and fairly continuous mass of mineralization estimated to be economically mineable

Ore grade - The average weight of the valuable metal or mineral contained in a specific weight of ore, i.e. grams per tonne of ore

Oxide - Rare earth bearing ore which results from the oxidation of near surface sulfide ore

Preliminary economic assessment ("PEA") - A study that includes an economic analysis of the potential viability of Mineral Resources taken at an early stage of the project prior to the completion of a preliminary feasibility study

Preliminary feasibility study or pre-feasibility study ("PFS") - Each mean a comprehensive study of the viability of a mineral project that has advanced to a stage where the mining method, in the case of underground mining, or the pit configuration in the case of an open pit, has been established and an effective method of mineral processing has been determined, and includes a financial analysis based on reasonable assumptions of technical, engineering, legal, operating, economic, social, and environmental factors and the evaluation of other relevant factors which are sufficient for a qualified person, acting reasonably, to determine if all or part of the Mineral Resource may be classified as a Mineral Reserve

RC (reverse circulation) drilling- A drilling method using a tri-cone bit, during which rock cuttings are pushed from the bottom of the drill hole to the surface through an outer tube, by liquid and/or air pressure moving through an inner tube

Recovery - The percentage of contained metal actually extracted from ore in the course of processing such ore

Run of Mine – Ore as it is delivered directly from the mine prior to treatment of any sort

Sampling and analytical variance/precision- An estimate of the total error induced by sampling, sample preparation and analysis

Strike- The direction or trend that a structural surface, e.g. a bedding or fault plane, takes as it intersects the horizontal

Strip- To remove overburden in order to expose ore

Sulfide- A mineral including sulfur and iron as well as other elements; metallic sulfur-bearing mineral often associated with REE mineralization

Tailings- Fine ground wet or dry waste material produced from ore after economically recoverable metals or minerals have been extracted

Vein- A thin, sheet-like crosscutting body of hydrothermal mineralization, principally quartz